On November 20th Mexicans all over the country remember and celebrate the Revolution of 1910-1920. The day is referred to as Dia de la Revolucion. All over the country Nov. 20th is commemorated with parades, and civic ceremonies centered around the history of what happened during the Revolution.
The time of the Mexican Revolution was a time of political and social unrest in Mexican history. Porfirio Diaz was in power at the time and had been for the last 30 years. Two years before the Revolution began Diaz made statement declaring that Mexico was ready for democracy and the President that would follow him should be elected democratically. However, when a man by the name of Francisco Madero took him at his word and decided to run against Diaz in the elections in 1910, Diaz had Madero imprisoned and declared himself the winner of the President election.
Before being imprisoned, Madero had written the Plan de San Luis Potosi which called the Mexican people to rise up in arms against President Diaz. This document, plus the 30 years of dictatorship under Diaz, poor treatment of workers, and a great disparity between the rich and poor were the causes of the beginning of the Revolution.
Madero, along with his supporters, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, who led troops in the North, and Emiliano Zapata, who led troops in the South, were victorious in overthrowing Diaz, who fled to France where he remained in exile until his death in 1915.
Madero was then elected president. Up to that point the revolutionaries had had a common goal, but with Madero as president, their differences became obvious. Zapata and Villa had been fighting for social and agrarian reform, whereas Madero had mainly been interested in making political changes.
On November 25th, 1911, Zapata proclaimed the Plan de Ayala which stated that the goal of the revolution was for land to be redistributed among the poor. He and his followers rose up against Madero and his government. From February 9th to 19th, 1913, the Decena Tragica (the Tragic Ten Days) took place in Mexico City.
General Victoriano Huerta, who had been leading the federal troops, turned on Madero and had him imprisoned. Huerta then took over the presidency and had Madero and vice-president Jose Maria Pino Suarez executed.
In March 1913, Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, proclaimed his Plan de Guadalupe, which rejected Huerta’s government and planned a continuation of Madero’s policies. He formed the Constitutionalist army, and Villa, Zapata and Orozco joined in with him and overthrew Huerta in July 1914.
In the Convencion de Aguascalientes of 1914, the differences between the revolutionaries again came to the forefront. Villistas, Zapatistas and Carrancistas were divided. Carranza, defending the interests of the upper classes was backed up by the United States. Villa crossed the border into the U.S. and attacked Columbus, New Mexico. The U.S. sent troops into Mexico to capture him but they were unsuccessful. In the south Zapata divided up land and gave it to the campesinos, but he was eventually forced to seek refuge in the mountains.
In 1917 Carranza formed a new Constitution which brought about some social and economical changes. Zapata maintained the rebellion in the south until he was assassinated on April 10, 1919. Carranza remained president until 1920. Villa was pardoned in 1920, but was killed on his ranch in 1923.
The results of the Revolution were that the people were successful in ousting President Diaz, and since the Revolution no Mexican President has held office for longer than the prescribed 6 years in office and proclaiming and putting into order a new consitution. Also, the political party PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucionalizado) was formed and it’s candidates held office until 2000 when a member of the other politcal party PAN was elected.
Dia de la Revolucion is a commemoration of Mexican history, and Pete and I along with our friend Sergio took part in some of the festivities as we went to El Centro to see the historic parade. It was incredible to see the way that the Mexican people still treasure and celebrate their history. At the beginning of the parade where floats depicting different eras in the Revolution and each had a banner explaining what was going on at that time in history.
Below are some pictures of the parade, hope you enjoy them, and that you enjoyed learning a bit about the Mexican history and Dia de la Revolucion.
We hope you all had a wonderful Thanksgiving and holiday weekend with your friends and family. We appreciate all of you and the time you take to pray for us and read our updates. Hope you enjoyed the Mexican history lesson!